Descubriendo los mecanismos responsables de la eficacia de la vacunación frente a garrapatas

Tick infestations affect human and animal health worldwide and economically impact cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Vaccines containing the recombinant R. microplus BM86 gut antigen were developed and commercialized to induce an immunological protection in cattle against tick infestations. These vaccines demonstrated that tick control by vaccination is cost-effective, reduces environmental contamination and prevents the selection of drug resistant ticks that result from repeated acaricide applications. The protection elicited by BM86-containing vaccines against tick infestations is mediated by a collaborative action between the complement system and IgG antibodies. The efficacy of the vaccination with BM86 and other tick antigens is always higher for R. annulatus than against R. microplus, suggesting that tick genetic and/or physiological factors may affect tick vaccine efficacy. These factors may be related to BM86 protein levels or tick physiological processes such as feeding and protein degradation that could result in more efficient antibody-antigen interactions and vaccine efficacy. These results have important implications for tick vaccine research, indicating that not only genetic differences, but also physiological factors may influence tick vaccine efficacy.

tick vaccine efficacySchematic representation of the relationship between protein degradation machinery and vaccine efficacy in cattle vaccinated with BM86 to protect against cattle tick infestations.

Popara, M., Villar, M., Mateos-Hernández, L., Fernández de Mera, I.G., Marina, A., del Valle, M., Almazán, C., Domingos, A., de la Fuente, J. 2013. Lesser protein degradation machinery correlates with higher BM86 tick vaccine efficacy in Rhipicephalus annulatus when compared to R. microplus. Vaccine 31: 4728-4735.

Hajdušek, O., Šíma, R., Ayllón, N., Jalovecká, M., Perner, J., de la Fuente, J., Kopáček, P. 2013. Interaction of the tick immune system with transmitted pathogens. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 3: 26.

Ben Said, M., Galai, Y., Ben Ahmed, M., Gharbi, M., de la Fuente, J., Jedidi, M., Darghouth, M.A. 2013. Hd86 mRNA expression profile in Hyalomma scupense life stages, could it contribute to explain anti-tick vaccine effect discrepancy between adult and immature instars? Veterinary Parasitology 198: 258-263.

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